The THOREAU SOCIETY BULLETIN BULLETIN 173, FALL 1985 US ISSN 0040-6406 THE CONCORD FARMERS CLUB AND THOREAU 'S "SUCCESSION OF FOREST TREES" by Louisa Kussln Introduction - The extract below has been taken from the Rec- ords of the Concord Farmers Club for the year 1859- 1860. It is the "minutes" of a discussion which followed an essay on "Forest Trees" read to the Club on April 12, 1860 by Charles L. Heywood. Five months and eight days after this date Henry D. Thoreau delivered his address, "The Succession of Forest Trees", at the annual Fair of the Middlesex Agricultural Society in Concord. Since so many of the Farmers Club's questions are answered in Thoreau' s lecture, it seems obvious there is a re- lation between the two. The Concord Farmers Club was one of several local groups in Middlesex County during the mid-nineteenth century. It met weekly during the winter season - from early November through April. At each meeting an essay on an agricultural subject waa read» by one of the members and a discussion of the subject followed, led off by four "leaders". The leaders of the discussion on the evening of April 12 were: Jacob B. Farmer, Joseph D. Brown, John F. Wood, and Joshua Warren Brown. It is mainly the remarks of these men - and of the speaker - which were recorded. (Unfortunate- ly, the Secretary was not required to list the names of everyone present at these meetings - although a few years later he was required to do so.) The first meeting in the Club's season was usually a business meeting. Officers were elected for the incoming year, and a committee was appoint- ed to assist the President in selecting the sub- jects to be discussed and in assigning speakers to them. For the 1859-60 season the officers were: Nathan Henry Warren, President ; A.H. Wheeler, Vice President; Elijah Wood, Jr., Treasurer; and Dr. Joseph Reynolds, Secretary . Two of these men were serving also as officials for the Middlesex Agri- cultural Society: Joseph Reynolds was Secretary of the Society, and Elijah Wood was a long-standing member of the Board of Trustees, representing the Town of Concord. The officers of the Club were also its 1859-60 speech committee (although this was not the usual course of events). As for Charles L. Heywood, the speaker at the April 12, 1860 meeting, he is reported to have been a member of the family which owned four pieces of property in the environs of Walden Pond - one of them being "Heywood' s Meadow" (site of the affair of the mud-turtle and the pout) on the WSW side of Walden close to the Lincoln line, and another being a woodlot on the ESE corner bordering directly on the Pond. By profession, Mr. Heywood was a "rail- road man", and is further reputed to have been an "influential" one in his company. 2 His nomination in November of 1858 coincided with a time when the local farmers were trying to obtain lower rates for The Thoreau Society, Inc., is an infor- mal gathering of students and admirers of Henry David Thoreau. Frederick Wagner, President; Mary Anderson, Treasurer; and Walter Harding, Secretary. Address communi- cations to the Secretary at State University College, Geneseo, N.Y. 14454. Dues, $10 a year; Friend, $15 Family, $25; and Life Membership, $500. Dues should be sent to The Thoreau Society, 156 Belknap St., Con- cord, Mass. 01742, where the society maintains The Thoreau Lyceum their daily milk shipments into the city. More than ten years after this April 1860 evening, Minot Pratt wrote the following: "The chestnut trees of Concord do not at present appear to have a fair opportunity to show what they can do if left to old age. The railroad call for sleepers has had the singular effect of waking up the owners of woodlots to search for all that are of sufficient size, and the axe lieth at the root of those which have not already fallen. The fruit of these would be valu- able if they could be left until large size, and the boys would understand that the owner as properly owns the fruit of his chestnut grove as of his apple orchard . . ." (March 6, 1873, CFC Records) Since it is likely that the conditions which caused Minot to write as he did in 1873 were not so different from what they had been a decade or so earlier, it seems possible to probable that Charles Heywood asked permission to address the members of the Club on the subject of Forest Trees at this final meeting of their 1859-60 season. 3 Should future research prove this to have been the case, it was not to be the only occasion dur- ing this period in its history when the Farmers Club accommodated a distinguished non-agricultural member. The following year, an additional meeting was called at the end of the official season in order that the Superintendent of Schools, Bronson Alcott, might read an essay - which he called "The Garden". Mr. Heywood remained in the Club one more year after his talk to the farmers. But he did not read another essay, and after the 1860-61 season his name no longer appears on the membership lists in the Club Records. In its eight years of existence prior to April 12, 1860, the Concord Farmers Club had never accorded an evening to the discussion of Forest Trees (or Woodlands). Trees had been discussed from the standpoint of fruit-bearers or in rela- tion to their ornamental and protective charac- teristics (as in plantings around homes, or culti- vated fields or pastures to protect crops or live- stock from excessive weather conditions). In the decade following Mr. Heywood ' s essay, however, sessions on Forest Trees were scheduled nearly every year, or at the least, every other year.^ Twenty-one essays were written and read before the Farmers Club during the 1859 season. Thirteen were copied in the Record book (as was the custom); two others were printed later in the New England Farmer; and another may have retained by its author to be used as a draft for a committee report which appeared in the 1860 Transactions of the Middlesex Agricultural Society. Of the five essays which re- main missing, one - of course- is Charles L. Hey- wood's piece on "Forest Trees". The Minutes - April 12 (1860). Club met at the home of C.L. Heywood. Voted to have the supper on the 19th unless some- thing important should prevent, in which case each member will be notified of the time. An Essay on Forest Trees was read by Mr. Heywood (Charles L. ) J.B. Farmer (Jacob B.) said we need more light on the subject. We need more accurate knowledge of trees. We can hardly describe a tree were we to or- der it from abroad. He has recently examined sever- al species of pines. The Scotch pine has two leaves in each sheath. The Pitch pine 3. The White five. The Norwegian he thinks 4. There are several kinds of oak, all of which differ in the shape of their berries. We have three kinds of maple, the Sugar, the White and the red. He thinks each tree feeds on different elements in the soil. We find a succession of different trees grow on the same soil. If we cut off pines, oaks will come up. If we cut off oaks, pines will follow on some soils, oaks will come up after oaks. Such soils have some mineral element that suits the oak. When this is exhausted, another kind will come. The White pine, the Chestnut, and the birch grow so fast, that they are the most profitable trees to raise. The larch grows in low grounds, J.D. Brown (Joseph D.) said he had but little accurate knowledge about trees. On a piece of land he owns, there had been three successive crops of oaks . Pine is followed by oak, but oak land will bring up oaks. He does not think much of pruning forest trees. Thinning will not benefit those which remain. On suitable land it would be advisable to set forest trees, but not on tillage land. Mr. Heywood asked when he would cut wood if he wished the sprouts to grow. He replied, In the winter. He has cut only in the winter. Land that he cut in winter has come up, and produced 25 cords per acre in 25 years . Mr. Warren (Nathan Henry) said he had noticed the difference in sprouts, when the wood was cut in November, and in March. When cut in March there would be 5 times as many sprouts. Mr. Jones (Hiram W.) had cut in June, and there were scarcely any sprouts . The Pres. (Nathan Henry Warren) thinks that trees cut in summer do not generally start much. Mr. Jones has cut Alders in August, not one in a hundred started. John F. Wood did not think there was much land in Concord which could be profitably set out with forest trees, except for shade. Sprouts are apt to grow too thick. If only one or two were left to grow, they might grow larger. The sprouts might be cut when large enough for hoop poles. This would pay - and the benefit to those left, would pay for the labor. As many as 8 or 10 Chestnut sprouts start from a stump. All but 2 or three die. It has been said that roots will run as far as the height of the trees. Some conversation ensued about the age of trees. J.W. Brown (Joshua Warren) does not think it would pay to set out trees. In the rocky pastures, they grow fast enough, if left alone. He has mowed brush many years in succession but they continued to grow. In one such lot, a good crop is now grow- ing. It is best to cut off the wood when the trees are three or four inches through. Then they would come up evenly. C.L. Heywood said if you keep such land, say 10 acres for pasture, and mow the brush, and another 10 acres grow to wood, which will be the most profitable. In 30 years you will have 25 cords of wood to the acre, worth $3 per cord standing. The pasture will not be worth more than enough to pay for mowing the brush. Mr. Brown on sandy land would let pitch pines grow. J.B. Brown (James B.) asked if pitch pine was the best answer. It was the best wood. C.L. Heywood said a tree standing alone will yield much seed. But the land will be some years in getting seeded. It was better to plant it all at one time, which might be done for $6 per acre. Then it would grow even. E. Wood Jr. (Elijah) thinks there are more acres growing to wood in> Concord than there were 80 years ago. J. B. Farmer thinks there are twice as many acres grown or growing to wood than there were 40 years ago. E. Wood's grandfather had seen 40 acres of rye growing where there are now board logs. Mr. Heywood had been buying wood for 12 years. Wood would be no higher. There are more acres growing by one 4th than 10 years ago. We now burn coal. Have fuel saving stoves. 12 years ago, fuel was 50 cents higher than now. He has purchased wood in Boston for $3.25 the past year. On the Peterboro road for $3.12. On the Main road $4. Last year cheaper than ever. If there were 2 or 3 pencil factories in town, it would pay to raise pines. Where shall the manufacturers go to get timber . Sapling pines are more than hard wood. In Townsend pine was worth $4 per cord. One cord and a half will grow per acre in a year, on land worth $5. Poor land will grow pines rapidly. It will grow hard wood 2 or 3 inches thick. When it stops growing the land cannot carry it further. Poor land worth $5 net(s) more than our lands worth $15 or ($)20. E. Wood referred to a piece of land on which the owner gave away the wood for cutting. It was plowed and planted to potatoes. Brush was mowed. It yield- ed but little pasturage. It was then left to grow up to wood, and is now worth $100 per acre. The President spoke of a lot in Weymouth which a friend of his purchased for pasture. There were some pines on it. They were left standing. This was 50 years ago. His friend has been offered $400 per acre . A.H. Wheeler (Abiel H.) said the frost killed the young oaks in the valleys on Fairhaven Hill. Mr. Heywood said stock the land with pines, and then set oaks. The pines will protect them from frost,. When the oaks are large enough to endure the frost, cut the pines. They will pay well for cutting. Chestnuts and some other trees will do as well as pines to protect the young oaks. Adjourned. This is the last meeting for the season. The meetings have been well attended, and the interest sustained through the winter as well or better than in any previous year. The discus- sions have been animated, and many able essays have been read. Several new members have joined the Club. Joseph Reynolds, Secretary Notes - 1. The purpose of these local groups was pri- marily "educational". By pooling their ideas and their experience, the members of the Clubs sought to establish more scientific methods in the prac- tice of their vocation. Frequently these men were among the most enlightened farmers in their commun- ities, and the Concord Club, during the '60s and '70s, included some very talented people. It might be stated that, on the whole, the smaller groups were more effective in disseminating a genuine knowledge of agriculture than the larger county societies which preceded them in formation. 2. This assessment of Mr.Heywood's professional status is confirmed by a news item about the annual dinner held by the Club, which appeared in the June, 1860 issue of the New England Farmer . The name of C.L. Heywood is printed among the names of notables who rose at the end of the meal to deliver "a few remarks" to the guests. I am in- debted to Marcia Moss and Thomas Blanding for this information. 3. The subject of "Forest Trees" was on the original program as scheduled by the speech commit- tee at the beginning of the season. That is, it was not a last-minute addition to the schedule, nor a substitute for another subject, as sometimes happened . 4. Should the question arise as to whether a lecture on "Forest Trees' would have been scheduled had not Heywood desired to address the Club, it is the opinion of this writer that it would have been, for the reason that conditions with respect to harves table wood throughout the county and the state at this time were such that consideration of the subject by the farmers had become mandatory. It is also the opinion of this writer that neither Mr. Heywood' s possible desire for lumber for his railroad, nor the ignorance of both Heywood and the farmers about trees were strong enough reasons to compel the Society to requisition a "Succession of Forest Trees" from Henry D. Thoreau unless these other "conditions" had been in existence. REFLECTIONS IN A STREETLIGHT by Stephen A. Kenney Editor's note: In 1984 Stephen A. Kenney of Ken- more, New York, a graduate student in English at SUNY Buffalo who is doing his diss-ertaion on Thoreau, planted wildflowers on his front lawn and upon complaint of some of his neighbors, was found guilty of "creating a public hazard." When he re- fused to cut them down, a judge imposed a fine of fifty dollars a day. The case is on appeal. ] One evening early last fall, as I was walking down the tree-lined suburban street on which I live, I could hear up ahead an odd high-pitched noise, one I could not immediately identify. The evening was rather late, the traffic had died down, and only the low grumbling of distant trucks, factories, and city streets was audible, serving as a contrast- ing background to those sharp sounds and making them seem foreign, somehow out of place. As I near- ed my front yard, I realized the strange tones were issuing from there; and I smiled to myself in the streetlit semi-darkness, recognizing the cheer- ful singing of a choir of crickets. For the first time, it dawned on me that, save for the occasion- al forlorn chirrup of a solitary individual, I rarely ever hear crickets anymore. I stood stock still for a few moments and let my ears drink in the music that had seemed eternal in my rural childhood. I closed my eyes and imagined that these insects were celebrating this small oasis of tangled grasses and wildflowers, and praising the Great Mystery which had so bountifully provided for them. The knotty tension in my muscles — put there by months of chaotic disruption in my life: the recently lost court battle, the swirling media circus,, the wrenching Kafkaesque scenes — began to loosen, and I felt, if only for a fleeting in- stant, that it had all been worth it; the crickets at least, understood. Moments such as that are, unfortunately, all too rare for me these days, and with the appeal trial scheduled for June, I see even fewer of them in the near future. The absolute irony is that I originally moved to this neighborhood be- cause I knew that my decision to go back to school required I find a more peaceful setting than the very distracting urban one in which I was then living. Although, I certainly would've preferred a rural residence, money, distance, and availabili- ty made this suburban one a happy medium; or so I had hoped. The understanding landlords gave me carte blanche to make myself entirely at home; the neighbors, as I've come to learn only too well, want me to make my home elsewhere. What very few of them seem to understand is that I'm not fignting so much simply for my own home as I am for every- one's — including the crickets', for if they can't survive, we certainly won't either. The a- stounding lack of progress in understanding this very simple fact does not bode well for our sur-^- vival; sadly though, this has been said.So many times before and so many times has gone unheeded. As a fellow "student and admirer of Henry David Thoreau," I share with you a desire to point out the relevance, the necessity , of understanding the wisdom of his work and of seeing our world through his eyes. As we have all seen, however, too often Thoreau is reduced to a bumper-sticker aphorism, made incomprehensible by esoteric criticism, or given semi-divine status by ardent devotees. Per- haps one of the most disappointing things about my "celebrated lawn trial" is the way I'm depicted as some sort of side-show oddity, an overzealous "dis- ciple of Thoreau' s. They seem to say, "isn't this all very quaint. Now back to the serious news." (Although I do admit I was pleased with the sober treatment Dan Rather gave the story, complete with an appropriate quotation from "Civil Disobedience.") Nevertheless, for now, I think we should at least feel some satisfaction at having Thoreau' s name mentioned at all. One of the major reasons I went to graduate school was my deep longing to immerse myself in a systematic study of Thoreau' s works and to figure out a way to make his thoughts more accessible and more meaningful to an audience much larger than the small group of us already concerned. I was looking for something important to say about his life's work, something that would crystalize his philosophy and make it pertinent to everyone's life. If people would not recognize the clarion of Chanticleer, I wanted to build a clanging alarm clock. To be honest, though, when I scattered the first handful of wildflower seeds in my front yard, I was not thinking of Thoreau; I was merely re- sponding to my own environmental impulse. Yet I quickly discovered that planting my flowers and standing firmly by my right to do so in the face of legal threats by "the desperate party" was it- self a profound study of Thoreau; although uninten- tional, my experience has, 1 believe, offered a depth to my appreciation of his words that no amount of time in the library could have. And this summer, when I can once again listen to the chorus of crickets surrounded by silent lawns, I'll know that, at least for me , dawn is only hours away. ECONOMY PUBLIC RELATIONS: Margaret Brace, Lillian Files, Laurie Ledeen (Chairperson), Patience MacPherson. PUBLICATIONS: Thomas Blanding*, Malcolm Ferguson, Walter Harding*, Linck Johnson, John McAleer, Anne R. McGrath, Joel Myerson (chair- person) • THE ANNUAL MLA SESSION The Thoreau Society will, as usual, spon- sor a winter meeting at the annual convention of the Modern Language Association, to be held this year in Chicago just after Christ- mas. It will feature papers on "Teaching Walden " by Linck Johnson, Richard Lebeaux, Robert Richardson, and Timothy Trask, and chaired by Michael Meyer and Joel Myerson. Date and place will be announced in the catalog of the convention. ADDITIONS TO THE THOREAU BIBLIOGRAPHY. ,WH BY Michael Meyer The Thoreau Society needs financial sssistance. Since 1983 the Society has found it necessary to draw upon funds from its modest endowment in ord- er to meet its operating expenses. Twenty-eight dollars and twelve and one half cents simply doesn't go as far as it once did. The Society's activities are thriving but so are its costs. Several steps have been taken to avoid future deficits, including a new membership drive, an increased fee for lyceum admissions, and reduced costs for printing the BULLETIN and THE CONCORD SAUNTERER. In addition, the Society has established a Development Committee that will seek grants and donations. All members of the society are urged to think creatively about how we can raise money from corp- orations or other organizations that might be will- ing to help support various Lyceum, publications, and archives programs. If you have any ideas, leads, or contacts concerning potential contributors, please describe tham and inform Robert Galvin (chairperson of the new Development Committee: % Gage, Tucker & vom Baur, One Boston Place, Boston, Mass. 02108). And of course, individual amounts (perhaps supplemented by corporate employers who have matching programs) are as welcomed as they are sorely needed. Checks should be made payable to the Thoreau Society, 156 Belknap Street, Concord, Mass. 01742. Whatever help you can provide will be richly appreciated. THOREAU SOCIETY COMMITTEES President Frederick Wagner announces the appointment of the following committees of the society for 1985-1986. The president is ex officio a member of each committee. Other ex officio members are marked with an aster- isk: ARCHIVES: Thomas Blanding, Malcolm Ferguson (vice chairperson), Dana McLean Greeley (chairperson), Walter Harding, Anne R. Mc- Grath*, Michael Meyer, Marcia Moss*, Edmund Schofield, Jacgueline Tidman. DEVELOPMENT: Mary Anderson*, Raymond R. Borst, John Clymer*, Robert Galvin (chair- person), Walter Harding*, Barbara Winstanley, Barbara Wojtusik, Ann H. Zwinger. EXECUTIVE: Mary Anderson*, John Clymer (chairperson), Dana McLean Greeley, Walter Harding*, Laurie Ledeen, Joel Myerson, Marian Wheeler, Robert Galvin, chairperson of Lyceum Committee. FINANCE: Mary Anderson* (chairperson), John Clymer*, Mary McClintock, Eric Parkman Smith. Kidder, Rushworth. "Rushworth Kidder LYCEUM: chair and members now being select- Reads Thoreau." CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONI- ed. TOR. Aug. 5, 1985. PROGRAM: Lillian Files, Persis Green, Lind- Lebeaux, Richard. THOREAU'S SEASONS. Re- a Henning, Patience MacPherson, Lucille Need- view: NEW ENGLAND QUARTERLY. March, 1985 ham, Marilyn Nicoson, Joan Nolan, Eugene Walk- er, Mary Walker, Marian Wheeler (chairperson), Lawrence Whipple. Abbott, P. "Henry David Thoreau, the State of Nature, and the Redemption of Liberalism." JOURNAL OF POLITICS, 47 (Feb. 1985), 182-208. Beeching, Paul. "Thoreau' s Mountain and Mine." CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR. Aug. 19, 1985. Mount Monadnock. Bly, William. "Thoreau at Walden." in LAND OF THE LIVING. Broken Arrow, Okla : Bly, 1985. pp. 4-5. Poem. . "Thoreau* s Cabin." in LAND OF THE LIVING. p. 13. Poem. . THOREAU'S WALDEN IDENTITY: A PSYCHO- LOGICAL PORTRAIT. Broken Arrow, Okla.: Bly (1026 West Boston Ave., 74012), 1985. 22pp. Bridgman, Richard. DARK THOREAU. Review: SOUTHERN HUMANITIES REV. Winter ,_ 1984 . Browne, Mark. "Thoreau Scholars Hail Dis- covery of Artifacts." CONCORD JOURNAL. Aug. 15, 1985. Discovery of Thoreau 's flute book. Christenson, Andrew. "The Identification and Study of Indian Shell Middens in Eastern North America: 1643-1861." NORTH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGIST, 6 (1985), 227-243 Pays tribute to Thoreau' s early studies in the field. Currier, Ann-Mary. "Where Thoreau Roamed." PROVIDENCE JOURNAL-BULLETIN. July 28, 1985. Visiting Walden Pond. Gross, Robert A. "The Great Bean Field Hoax: Thoreau and the Agricultural Re- formers." VIRGINIA QUAR. REV., 61 (Sum- mer, 1985), 483-496. A real delight. Don't miss it. Harding, Walter .THOREAU'S MINNESOTA JOUR- NEY: TWO DOCUMENTS. New York: AMS Press 1985. 61pp. A reprint. Howarth, William. THE BOOK OF CONCORD. Review: SOUTHERN HUMANITIES REVIEW. Winter, 1985. Leokum, Arkady. "Thoreau Idea Was to Keep Life Simple." BATAVIA [N.Y.] NEWS. June 15, 1985. Magill, Frank N. "Henry David Thoreau" in MASTERPLOTS OF AMERICAN LITERATURE, Vol. V. New York: Harper, 1970. pp. 37-56. Ma lion, Thomas. A BOOK OF ONE'S OWN. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1984. Many com- ments on Thoreau as journalizer. Miller, Linda. "A Teacher Returns Renewed" NEW YORK TIMES. Sept. 8, 1985. On studying Thoreau in Concord. Nibbelink, H. "Thoreau and Wendell Berry: Bachelor and Husband of Nature." SOUTH ATLANTIC QUARTERLY, 84 (Spring, 1985), 127-140. Pokrovsky, Nikita. "Thoreau in Russia" SOVIET LIFE, 9 (Sept. 1985), 57. Many new details about Tolstoi's interest in Thoreau . Robinson, Kenneth A. THOREAU AND THE WILD APPETITE. New York: AMS Press, 1985, 29pp. A reprint. Roof, Christopher. "Yours Coneordially. " MIDDLESEX NEWS. Sept. 6, 1985. Schneider, Richard. "Thoreau and Nine- teenth Century American Landscape Paint- ing. ESQ, 31 (1985), 67-88. Stull, W.L. "Action from Principle: Tho- reau 's Transcendental Economics." ENG- LISH LANG. NOTES, 22 (Dec. 1984), 58-62. Taylor, C.A. "Authorship without Authori- ity: Walden, Kierkegaard and the Experi- ment in Points of View." in R.Schleifer & R. Markley, KIERKEGAARD AND LITERATURE Norman: Univ. of Okla, 1984. pp. 164-182. Teele, John W. , ed. THE MEETING HOUSE ON THE GREEN: A HISTORY OF THE FIRST PARISH IN CONCORD AND ITS CHURCH. Concord: First Parish, 1985. 361pp. Many men- tions of Thoreau and his family. Thoreau, Henry D. CAPE COD. Boston: Lit- tle, Brown & New York Graphic Society, 1985. 230pp. $35. A huge, new coffee- table size edition beautifully illustrat- ed with photographs, maps, and drawings that almost, as the editor William F. Robinson hoped, gives the impression that Thoreau could have made them himself to illustrate his text. Robinson has dug up many wonderful photographs, particular- ly those of a Henry K. Cummings, added some of his own, along with the drawings of Amelia Watson and wins low Homer to make a really superb book. Our only quarrel is that a few (not many) of the photographs are not quite as clear as they might be. Robinson adds a table of directions for hiking on the Cape today where there has been little or no change since Thoreau 's day. (He does note however that one of the major changes is the return of the pine for- ests to the dunes.) This is an edition you will treasure and enjoy. The Same. Review. CAPE COD ORA- CLE. Aug. 1, 1985. The Same. Intro, by Robert Finch. Orleans, Mass.: Parnassus, 1984. 319pp. JOURNAL I [Princeton]. Review: SOUTHERN HUMANITIES REVIEW. Winter, 1984 NATURAL HISTORY ESSAYS. Review: SIERRA. March, 1985. THOREAU IN THE MOUNTAINS. Review: SOUTHERN HUMANITIES REV. Winter, 1985. Warren, Joyce W. "The Gender of American Individualism: Henry David Thoreau." in THE AMERICAN NARCISSUS. New Brunswick, N.J. Rutgers, 1984. pp. 55-71. West, Michael. "Thoreau and the Language The- ories of the French Enlightenment." ELH, 51 (Winter, 1984), 747-770. Williams, Donald. "Lady of the Woods: Some Correspondence of Fannie Hardy Eckstorm. COLBY LIBRARY QUART. March 1985. pp. 28-33. Wright, Mark T. "Addendum to Thoreau Story" CONCORD JOURNAL. Sept. 19, 1985. More on finding Thoreau' s flute book. We are indebted to the following for in- formation sent in for the bulletin: R.Borst, R. Chapman, A. Christianson,R.Dupree,M.Fenn, M. Grant, V. Ha lbert,W.Glick,H.Kiczka,V.Lottis, M. Meeri field, J. Michel, R.Michelf elder, G. Mon- tiero,M.Neussendorfer,R. Poland, C. Roof ,G. Ryan, H.Schon, E.Shaw, R.Thompson, F.Ziegler and J.Zuithoff. Please keep the secretary informed of items he has missed and new items as they appear. ADDITIONS TO THE AUTHORITATIVE TEXT OF "LIFE WITHOUT PRINCIPLE" by Bradley P. Dean The authoritative text of Thoreau' s essay "Life without Principle" appears in Reform Papers, ed . Wendell Glick (Princeton; Princeton Univ, Press, 1973), pp. 155-179. Recently, while generating re- constructions of the early "Life without Principle" lectures, I was obliged to work with this text in quite some detail, and I noticed three rather in- significant errors in the essay text and located the sources of two quotations used by Thoreau but which the editorial staff had been unable to locate prior to publication. This text of the essay will be stan- dard for many years to come, and since scholars will want the most accurate text possible, I present findings below. With the exception of my reference to the essay text in Reform Papers as "RP," the format and abbreviations employed in the additions below are the same as those employed in the textual apparatus to the essay (Reform Papers, pp. 374-377). Errors in the essay text: 164.31-32 where-/ever) should read wher- /ever 166.13 ' guacas ' ] should rea d "Guacas' 177.36 Message,) should read Message. Additions to "Textual Notes" (pp. 374-375): 161.15-17 "Greatness: Thoreau' s source for quotation is The Heetopades of Ve'eshnoo Sarma, in ji Series of Connected Fables , i nterspersed with Moral , Prudential , and Political Maxims , tr. Charles Wilkins (Bath, 1787), Ch . 2 Fable 1: "The story of the bull, the two jackals, and the lion." The quotation also appears in Thoreau' s Literary Notebook in the Library of Congress , ed . Kenneth Walter Cameron (Hart fold: Transcendental Books, 1964), p. 10. 166.11 "In the dry season: Thoreau 1 s source for this quotation is "A Visit to the Indian Graves of Chiriqui," New York Daily Tribune, 29 September 1859, P . 6, cols. 1-2. 166-13' "Guacas"; Emended from AM's and RP ' s "'guacas'" on authority of the source of the quotation and Thoreau's working draft in folder 20. Additions to "Table of Textual Variants" (p. 376): *166. 13-14 grave- / yards AM Y RP; " Graveyards folder 20. Addition to "Emendations of the Copy-Text" (p. 3770; 166.13 'Guacas':} ' guacas ' AM RP Addition to "End-of-Line Hyphenation, List B" (p. 377): 174.14 res-PRIVATA University of Connecticut ADDENDA TO THE THOREAU BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1855-1895 by Gary Scharnhorst I wish to supplement the bibliographies of sec- ondary comment about Thoreau with sixteen overlook- ed items from American periodicals during the period between 1855 and 1895. The following list contains a significant contemporary notice of the "Cape Cod" essays; an overlooked obituary; several reviews of "Thoreau's posthumously-published works, including three initialed by the suffragist Henry B. Blackwell; and a favorable reference to Walden by the Reverend W.R. Alger, best known today for an earlier denunci- ation of "the hermit of Concord." 1. "Pictor" tpseudo.}- "Massachusetts/(Correspondence of the Evening Post)." New York Evening Post . 13 August 1855, 1:3. A brief paragraph coroborates the claim, usually traced to F. B. Sanborn, that serialization of the "Cape Cod" essays in Putnam's was adruptly dis- continued at least in part because Thoreau's tone irritated some residents of the region. The par- agraph merits quotation in full: "Mr. Thoreau's Residentsof Cape Cod, published in Putnam have given a good deal of offence to the people of that part of the country, who think that they are quite as high in the scale of civilization as their neighbors are. Their, wild and solitary state is no hindrance to their advance in all the graces and refinements of life. Barnstable county has furnished its full share of the intellect of Massachusetts, and not a few of the best merchants of Boston are from that quarter. They are proud of their origin, and keep up their connection with their birthplace." 2. Joseph Palmer, M.D. "Association of the Alumni of Harvard College/Necrology of the Past Year." Boston Advertiser, 16 July 1862, 3:1-2. Genealogical and biographical sketch of "David Henry Thoreau" approximately 750 words: in length. 3. fEdmund H.J S(ears). Review of Excursions. Month- ly Relieious Magazine. 30 (December 1863), 346-347. The essays "will be read by those who love Nature, and desire to see her through the eyes of one specially anointed as her priest and prophet. " 4. ANON. "Thoreau and 'Thjs Maine Woods. '/The Attrac- tions of Nature." New York Evening Post, 22 August. 1864, 1:1-2. Favorable notice of "Thoreau's last published work," which is "redolent of the genuine out- door fragrance of the pine and freshness of the mountain breeze." Includes excerpts totaling about 2500 words. 5. (Edmund H.J S(ears) . Reveiw of Cape Cod. Monthly Religious Maeazine . 33 (May 1865), 319-320. The book "is thoroughly entertaining," though much of fThoreau'sJ description is caricature." 6. ANON. Review of Cape Cod. Universalist Quarter- y, 22 (July 1865), 399. ". . .fresh, original, a mirror of the shifting sands of the Cape and restless waves of the ocean, in full sympathy with Nature in all her moods . . ." 7. (RufusO E(Ellis}. Review of Letters to Various Persons. Monthly Religious Magazine, 34 (September 1865), 191. Criticizes Thoreau for "his real or affected indifference" to the Civil War. The same issue of this magazine contains several excerpts from the book under the title "Random Readings." 8. ANON. Reviews of the A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, Walden, and The Maine Woods. Universalist Quarterly , 22 (October 1865), 530-531. ". . .such books as these, bringing the reader into fellowship with Nature, are profitable every way," though many of Thoreau's observa- tions "are shallow, egotistical, and imperti- nent . " 9. ANON. Review of A Yankee in Canada,. Universa- list Quarterly , 23 (October 1866), 513. Brief, favorable notice of the work. 10. ANON. "Thoreau's 'Yankee in Canada. "/A Charac- teristic Book — The Humors of Travel." New York Evening Post , 4 October 1866, 1:12. "No man of his generation more entirely escaped from the thraldom of conventionalities, or lived out more truly and freely his own life." Excerpts about 800 words from the book. 11. CRufusJ E (El lis) . Review of A Yankee in Canada . Monthly Religious Magazine , 36 (November 1866), 334-339. ". . .pleasant and not uniasrructive and always hightoned . " 12. ANON. Review of Thoreau the Poet -Naturalist by W. E. Channing, Boston Transcrip t, 7 October 1863, 6:1. ". . .a book readable as much for its quaint biographer as for its curious bits of biogra- phy." 13. H^enryJ B. Bflackwell). Review of Summer . Boston W oman' s Journal , 26 July 1884, p. 244. ". . .a delightful book for quiet reading in the open air during summer vacation." 14. William Rounseville Alger. "Everyday Philoso- phy." Boston Transcript , 6 August 1892, 4:4. Commends Thoreau's description of the "battle of the ants" in Walden . 15. HCenry) B. B(lackwell). Review of Autumn. Boston Woman's Journal , 24 September 1892, P. 309. A work to be "welcomed by all the lovers of (Thoreau's ) unique and genuine genius." 16. HCenryD B .B(lackwellJ . Review of Familiar Letters of David Thoreau. Boston Woman' s Journa l , 6 July 1895, p. 211. ". . .a deljghtful book . . ." University of Texas at Dallas SINCLAIR LEWIS' COPY OF WALDEN by Julian Mason The most recent catalogue from Serendipity Books of Berkeley, CA (#43, July 1985) offers for sale Sinclair Lewis' copy of Walden (item 345, $900). It is an 1899 edition published by Crowell in the Handy Volume Classics series, with introduction by Charles G.D. Roberts. The catalogue entry is quite informative, point- ing out that the volume contains: (Lewis') signature in ink on the front endpaper, his marginal notes in pencil throughout, three pencilled notes by him, one on the great teachers of veg- etarianism, another on sexual contin- ence (over 50 words, in the margins opposite Thoreau's treatments of these subjects), and this interesting decla- ration on the front pastedown: "NY. Aug '07 / Read in noon hours of freedom from the semi-bondage of 'Tales'; on benches in Bryant Park; my Walden 2 feet of bench, my pond a drinking foun- tain, my forest a few elms and maples, where sparrows twittered. S.L." The entry goes on to cite various sections of Mark Schorer's biography of Lewis concerning his reading of Walden and his claim for its influence on him: Time and again in later life, Sinclair Lewis claimed that Thoreau had been of all writers and thinkers "the major in- fluence on his own work" (Mark Schorer, SINCLAIR LEWIS: AN AMERICAN LIFE, pp. 769, 811, et passim . ) The present copy clears up a small mystery, as to just when Lewis read WALDEN. Under "1902," when Lewis was in high school and dis- cussing in his recently-begun diary all the books he was reading, Schorer remarks: "It is surprising that he neyer mentions either Thoreau or WALDEN, for in adult life,, again, he claimed for WALDEN a strong, formative influ^ ence." Schorer then quotes an adult Lewis looking back on his Minnesota boy-hood - "there was no book which had for me a more peculiar and literal enchantment than WALDEN" - and comments: "One must wonder whether . . .he was not imposing on the Minnesota years a maturity of taste and judgment that came only later." And under "1904," with Lewis in college and on a visit to Boston and Cambridge, Schorer tells us that Lewis "mentioned most of the great New England writers in his diary during these days, and read about a number of them, but again, there is no mention either of Thoreau or WALDEN, and no thought of a trip to Concord." Actually, Schorer never does discover when Lewis first read WALDEN. And al- though we do not know that either, at least not for a certainty, it j,s cer- tain that in August 1907, while living in New York and turning out one Trans - atlantic Tales , Sinclair Lewis would snatch the noon hours for reading what soon came to be the book with the great- est influence on his own writings Apparently, in Bryant Park Lewis was trying to follow Thoreau's admonitions that "each one be very careful to find out and pursue his own way" ( Walden . Princeton, p. 71) and "However mean your life is, meet and Luteit" (P. 328). Unfortunately, Lewis, Bryant, and even Thoreau would find it much more difficult to follow these in the Bryant Park of today . University of North Carolina at Charlotte UNDULATIONS OF WALDEN POND by Edward C. Jacobs Thoreau, remarking in "The Pond in Winter" about the impossibility of accurately surveying on ice, puts forth a striking geological insight that an- ticipates by over fifty years a key idea associated with the Continental Drift theory of the early twentieth century, and later with the Plate Tecton- ics theory of the 1960's. Thoreau's idea deals with the undulation of the earth's crust: While I was surveying, the ice, which was sixteen inches thick, undulated , under a slight wind like water. It is well known that a level cannot be used on ice. At one rod from the shore its greatest fluctuation, when observed by means of a level on land directed to- ward a graduated staff on the ice, was three quarters of an inch, though the ice appeared firmly attached to the shore. It was probably greater in the middle. Who knows but if our instru- ments, were delicate enough we might detect an undulation in the crust of the earth? (Harding 221; italics mine) That the earth's upper crust, the lithosphere, does in fact undulate, in a fashion, like ice upon water, is a concept central to A/ Wegener's theory of Continental Drift. This theory posits the exis- tence of a supercontinent during the Paleozoic Age [called Pangea which evenually fragmented during the Mesozoic Age] into the smaller continents known to- day. Briefly put, these continental and oceanic mass- es "ride piggyback on the ...outer, cooler litho- sphere. Great fragments, or plates, of the litho- sphere appear to jostle and move over the softer, perhaps incipiently melted upper mantle of the Earth. A crude analogy is that of the movements of great plates of Arctic and Antarctic ice in response to the currents in the underlying ocean" (Lapedes 116) . "Crude analogy" nothwithstanding, the simile very clearly describes the same phenomenon of the undula- tion of the earth's crust that Thoreau speculated upon while surveying on Walden. The strongest support for the Continental Drift theory, once hotly debated, lies in the more re- cent and continuing geophysical investigations since the 1960's called Plate Tectonics. Similar to Continental Drift, Plate Tectonics posits "a simple model of the Earth in which a rigid outer shell 50-150km thick, the lithosphere . . .lie(s) above a hotter, weaker semiplastic asthenosphere , . . extendCing) . . . to a depth of 700km." The lithosphere is composed of a small number of large "rigid plates," which, as they move over the earth's surface, "grind and scrape against each other as they move independently like rafts of ice on water' (Lapedes 650). Were we to revise somewhat the word- ing of this analogy to read ". . .like rafts of ice on Walden Pond," we would not be distorting the import of the idea: the earth's crust of lithospheric plates does indeed undulate much as Thoreau speculated many years ago. Works Cited Harding, Walter, ed. The Variorum Walden : Henry Washington Square Press, David Thoreau. New York: 1963. Lapedes, D.N., ed . McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of the Geological Sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1978. Louisana Tech University Margaret Neussendorfer tells us that in a letter of June 13, 1866 to Annie Fields now in the Boston Public Library (Ms. C. 1.11 (100)) Sophia Hawthorne mentions her desire to buy or hire for her brother Nathaniel the house near the Railroad Station built by Henry Thoreau' s father. She says it stands on a good acre of land with twenty-five apple trees and was lived in by the family and sold a while ago to a young Irishman by Mrs. Thoreau. The title of the title story of Joanna Russ ' s THE ZANZIBAR CAT (1983) is taken from the last chapter of WALDEN. NOTES AND QUERIES Our apologies to Jack Schwartzman for in- advertently dropping his name as author of the eulogy of his dear friend Leonard Klein- A new adult condominium communityifn Reston, Va. is named "Thoreau Place." John Jakes in his 1982 novel NORTH AND SOUTH (Harcourt, 1982) speaks of Thoreau as "a radical . . .woodland anchorite" and quotes a line from feld in the summer bulletin and to Martin Doud WAL ? EN ' , „ , _„_„ „ , , _ na for misspelling his name on the article ™£/o5 ^hn, 3271 Hagdeburgerforth, Forster "Psychoanalyzing Henry: An Interview" in the r'esp'Bn^ing'wi^My A^rica^Sn^nSr^u^ H8 r spring bulletin. is 25 and writes fluent English. A great deal of excitement has been arous- A lead pencil label on exhibit recently at ed in Concord this summer by the discovery of the Houghton Library at Harvard University Thoreau's long missing flute book (in which reads, "J. Thoreau & Co's best quality lead he pressed many of his wildflowers) by Mark pencils, for drawing or writing, and all the Wright, a New Jersey high school teacher and purposes required of a good pencil. Concord, a member of the N.E.H. 1985 summer seminar in Mass." Concord, in the attic of Orchard House. It COLLECTOR'S CORNER: M & S Rare Books, Wes- is now being transferred to the Concord Free ton, Mass. 02193, is offering for sale thirty Public Library for safe keeping. pages of miscellaneous Thoreau manuscripts for According to the CONCORD JOURNAL for Aug. $62,500. It contains material from A WEEK, 15, 1985 there was an attempted rape at WaldenMAINE WOODS, and the journal. . . . The Rare Pond in early August. Book Room, 125 Greenwich Ave., NYC 10014, of- According to the CONCORD JOURNAL for Aug. fers a one-inch tintype of Thoreau for $450. 29, 1985, the selectmen of Lincoln, Mass., hav Jose Buscaglia, former artist in residence postponed a decision to reroute Route 126 at the Concord-Carlisle High School, has con- further back from Walden Pond. tributed to the school a mural of Thoreau, Hedwig Deuschle has presented a copy of her Emerson and Louisa May Alcott. undergraduate independent study thesis on "The "Thoreau Waiting for the River Ice to Secular Gospel in Literature and in the SciencBreak, " an etching by Joel Beckwith, has been of Man according to Thoreau, Whitman, and From issued by the Concord Art Association in an at the College of the Virgin Islands" (1976) tedition of one hundred copies, the Thoreau Society Archives. John Nickols of Concord tells us that the The Thoreau Society received a thousand _ late Lawrence A. Murray, a Concord land sur- dollars from the estate of the late Awona wil-veyor, told him that he often had to check ona Harrington of San Diego, Calif. many of Thoreau's Concord surveys in order According to the BOSTON GLOBE for June 16, to tie in his work with that of Thoreau and 1985, Roberta Rubini Atti and David Robinson that he always found them to be "exceptionally accurate. " Commemorative bricks now pave winthrop Lane in downtown Boston, honoring prominent "Boston ians." Included is one for Thoreau! were recently married at the cairn site at Walden Pond. Hallmark now issues a greeting card with the words "It is only by forgetting yourself that you draw near to God. — Thoreau." The elementary school in Kirkland, Wash., is named "the Henry David Thoreau School" and its official mascot is the underfrog. NEW ENGLAND COUNTRY ANTIQUES for May 1985 featured a reproduction of the Dunshee Ambro- A feature program on Thoreau, entitled "The Green Henry" was broadcast on West German TV on Feb. 4, 1985. Five nuclear protesters on trial in Providence, R.I. for damaging missile tubes quoted Thoreau's "Civil Disobed- type of Thoreau and asked who could identify lt.ience" in their defense according to the John Graves, in GOODBYE TO A RIVER ( Knopf , 1961), a book about the Brazos River in Texas, refers regularly to "Saint Henry David Thoreau. 1 The CHICAGO TRIBUNE for April 1, 1985 (Note the date! ) claims that Rock stars Madonna and Prince have been offered major roles in a pilot for a TV sitcom loosely based on Henry David Thoreau's WALDEN. We hope very loosely. August 15, 1985 PROVIDENCE JOURNAL BUL- LETIN.